BACKGROUND Synucleins are small, soluble proteins expressed primarily in neural tissue and in certain tumors. The family includes three known proteins: alpha-Synuclein, beta-Synuclein, and gamma-Synuclein.1 All Synucleins have in common a highly conserved alpha-helical lipid-binding motif with similarity to the class-A2 lipid-binding domains of the exchangeable apolipoproteins. Synuclein family members are not found outside vertebrates, although they have some conserved structural similarity with plant ‘late-embryo-abundant proteins. The alpha- and beta-Synuclein proteins are found primarily in brain tissue, where they are seen mainly in presynaptic terminals. The gamma-Synuclein protein is found primarily in the peripheral nervous system and retina, but its expression in breast tumors is a marker for tumor progression.2 Normal cellular functions have not been determined for any of the Synuclein proteins, although some data suggest a role in the regulation of membrane stability and/or turnover.3 Mutations in alpha-Synuclein are associated with rare familial cases of early-onset Parkinson’s disease, and the protein accumulates abnormally in Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and several other neurodegenerative illnesses.4 Phosphorylation of alpha-Synuclein at Ser 129 promoted fibril formation in vitro and these results highlight the importance of phosphorylation of filamentous proteins in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders.5
1. George, J.M.: Genome Biol. 3:3002.1-6, 2001
2. Maries, E. et al: Nature Rev. Neurosci. 4:727-38, 2003
3. Galvin, J.E. et al: Arch. Neurol. 58:186-190, 2001
4. Lucking, C.B. & Brice, A.:Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 57:1894-1908,2000
5. Fujiwara, H. et al: Nature Cell Biol. 4:160-4, 2002
Products are for research use only. They are not intended for human, animal, or diagnostic applications.
|Range AA114 to 140|
Species & predicted
reactivity ( ):
|Human, Mouse, Rat|
Weight of protein:
|Detects endogenous phosphorylated alpha-Synuclein (Ser129) proteins without cross- reactivity with other family members.|
Store at -20°C, 4°C for frequent use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
*Optimal working dilutions must be determined by end user.