BACKGROUND TIMP-1 is a 28.5 kDa glycoprotein that forms non-covalent 1 : 1 stoichiometric complexes with MMPs, thereby inhibiting the proteolytic activity of these enzymes. It is a member of the TIMP family, currently comprising four members (TIMP-1, -2, 3- and -4), which exhibit approximately 50% sequence similarity, is expressed by a wide range of cells and is present in most tissues and body fluids.1 Common to all members of the TIMP family is the presence of 12 cysteine residues in conserved regions forming six disulfide bonds that fold the protein into a two-domain structure. The presence of a large number of disulfide bonds renders the TIMP molecules resistant to extremes of temperature and pH, and denaturing conditions. High levels of TIMP-1 mRNA as well as TIMP-1 protein have been demonstrated in several types of cancer, including breast cancer, and this has been associated with a poor prognosis of the patients.2 The association between high levels of protease inhibitor and poor prognosis may be somewhat surprising, as proteolytic activity plays a pivotal role in cancer cell invasion and metastasis. This paradox points to TIMP-1 as a multifunctional protein, which in addition to the MMP-inhibitory effect has distinct tumor-promoting functions. It has been shown that TIMP-1 can mediate growth promotion and anti-apoptotic effects as well as both anti- and pro-angiogenic functions.3
1. Gomez, D.E.: Eur J Cell Biol. 74:111-22, 1997
2. Gardner, J. & Ghorpade, A.: J. Neurosci. Res. 74:801-6, 2003
3. Rhee, J-S. et al: Cancer Res. 64:952-61, 2004
Products are for research use only. They are not intended for human, animal, or diagnostic applications.
Target Protein Species:
31.2pg/ml – 2000pg/ml
No detectable cross-reactivity
with any other cytokine
Store at 4°C. Use within 6 months.
ELISA Kits are based on standard sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technology. Freshly prepared standards, samples, and solutions are recommended for best results.